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Nerd and geek have similar etymologies, with neither originally having much positive association. According to Benjamin Nugent, author of American Nerd: The Story of My People, the word nerd first appeared in the Dr. Seuss book If I Ran the Zoo, in which one of the zoo creatures, an angry little old man, was called a “nerd.” Nugent also notes a 1951 Newsweek article using the word nerd to refer to “a drip or a square,” which gets closer to modern stereotypes regarding nerds.
Geek was originally an early 20th-century term for a carnival worker who was so unskilled that the only thing the worker could do at the carnival to entice an audience was to bite off the heads of live animals. Essentially, a geek was a socially undesirable person who lacked any skill or ability.
Both terms still retain their original connotations of undesirable social traits and behaviors, but in the late 20th century their meanings became more fluid in nature, with the two terms often considered interchangeable. The last few decades in particular have seen associations with geek and nerd trending as more-positive social markers.
Geeks are now more generally described as “more community-oriented,” more likely to engage in “fannish” behavior such as collecting memorabilia, and more interested in trends.
Nerds tend to be associated with specialized technical knowledge, more interested in detailed theory than trends, and more given to serious study of a subject matter.
Both are now considered far more desirable for their expertise and enthusiasm for even esoteric topics than in the past. Whether someone is a nerd or a geek is now largely determined by personal preference rather than a hard set of characteristics, with no need to bite off the heads of any animals.